Built Environment

Built environment

With increasing urbanisation and demands for urban housing, cities also become the hub for waste resulting from construction and demolition works. The built environment is a key source of materials, while is also poses great challenges for circularity. Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) consists of diverse materials such as concrete, bricks, wood, metals, plastic, solvents and excavated soil. Many of these materials are fit for recycling or reuse, and have a high resource value. The technology for the separation and recovery of CDW is well established, accessible and relatively inexpensive. Yet, recycling rates across the EU vary greatly; some member states recycle 90% of CDW, others 10%.

Within CityLoops, Apeldoorn, Bodø, Høje-Taastrup, Mikkeli, Roskilde and Seville will be developing several tools of to promote circularity in the construction and demolition waste sector. CityLoops aims to make these tools replicable across Europe. To that end, the project has created a set of donwloadable 'factsheets', providing brief descriptions on each tool, including information on how it has been developed, how it will be deployed in CItyLoops and how it can be used in other cities.


  • 3D Tool for Tracking CDW On-Site  - 3D scanning tool using a camera drone with a photogrammetry software to model and to monitor demolition sites by image-based scanning. The tool produces point clouds to be used for 3D visualizations and 3D calculations of buildings and material quantities, as well maps and other GIS data about the site
  • Databank & Digital Marketplace for Recovered Construction Materials - Databank combining and storing data from the 3D scanning tool, also allowing the data to be included on the marketplace of construction materials (CDW) from demolition sites around the city of Mikkeli. The purpose is to centralise and display the relevant information on recovered CDW in an organised and accessible manner.





  • 3D GIS-based Visualisation Tool for Monitoring and Planning - Visualising all city structures, materials, emissions and flows such as energy use in real time. The purpose is to allow for future scenario planning by considering the surrounding context and simulated impacts, and to present sophisticated data in a visual way for involvement of citizens and non-specialists in city-planning through Bodø’s CityLab
  • CityLab Stakeholder Engagement Platform - Physical and virtual platform for stakeholder engagement on Bodø’s city development. Hosted at the town hall or other municipal premises, the CityLab (ByLab in Norwegian) integrates the 3D visualisation of Bodø to stimulate imagination and opinions on the city’s future. 

Roskilde & Høje-Taastrup

  • Business Cases for Circular Construction & Demolition ProjectsTo support the economic viability of the circular economy demonstration actions in CityLoops, generic and project-specific business cases will be developed to promote reuse, recycling, and revalorisation of CDW. The business cases will take into account the ‘product’, an analysis of market possibilities, incentives to support demand, and an economic assessment.
  • Planning and decision-making guidelines for circular construction - Addressing the implementation of circular economic practices in decision-making of construction and demolition projects, this tool will be based on a framework to map key decisions across the phases of demolition and construction, addressing the planning gap between demolition and construction projects. The tool will develop guidelines for incorporating circularity systemically in planning and decision-making processes.



are responsible for 30% of all waste generated in Europe, making CDW the most significant waste stream in the EU

1.2 billion


Buildings and infrastructure in Europe are highly material intensive, consuming between 1.2 and 1.8 billion tonnes of materials per year



The Waste Framework Directive, adopted by the EU in 2008, indicates that member states should ensure that by 2020 70% of CDW is recycled. The Circular Economy Action Plan notes that currently only 50% is recycled